An associate instructorship not only pays the major initial cost of a student's education but also gives the individual experience in leadership and training in the fundamentals of chemistry. All Ph.D. candidates are thus expected to teach, at least part-time, for two semesters. Most associate instructorships are half-time appointments, requiring 8-10 contact hours or 12-15 hours of service (including preparation) per week. Entering students are offered financial assistance at slightly different levels, depending upon their undergraduate records and recommendations. Most students serve as associate instructors during their first two or three semesters of graduate work and are then transferred to research assistantships.